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The Creative Mind-Brain-DNA Dialogue: Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity

Francisco Di Biase[1]

Grand Phd, Phd e Full Professor  World Information Distributed University, Bélgica;

Honorary Professor Albert Schweitzer International University, Switzerland;

Postgraduate Professor Geraldo Di Biase University Center - ugb, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro

Neurological and Neurosurgical Clinic and Department of eeg and Computerized Brain Mapping, Clínica Di Biase, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


In a previous lecture at this University, published as a chapter in the book Turning Points in Health vol. II, we showed the quantum-holographic aspects of brain dynamics and the universe that allow us to understand the Mind-Brain-Consciousness interaction without being restricted by the Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm and the hard problem described by the philosopher of mind David Chalmers. Here we will demonstrate the molecular aspects that explain the interaction between the mind, neurons and DNA, and how from this molecular dynamic emerges the epigenetic phenomenon of brain plasticity, the creation of new neural networks, and creativity.

The contemporary neuroimaging systems that we now routinely use in the medical clinic, such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri), positron emission computed tomography (pet scan), spect (single photon emission computed tomography) and brain mapping, have shown that our brain does not differentiate between imagination and reality. In other words, the brain areas activated during imagination are the same as those activated during the observation of a real image, or during sensory perception.

Therefore, when our brain comes into contact with environmental novelties, stimuli that activate our imagination, visualizations, meaningful memories, as well as psychotherapeutic insights, mind-body therapies, rehabilitation, meditation and prayer practices, and even physical exercise, all this stimulates the release of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters and hormones), which act on the process of genetic expression of DNA.

The DNA transmits the code to the messenger RNA, which in turn conducts this information and transmits the genetic code to the ribosomes located in the cytoplasm of the cells where the sequences of three nitrogenous bases (triads) are then read, which are related to the twenty essential amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds, structuring the proteins that are fundamental to life. This protein synthesis carried out in the body's cells and neurons therefore generates the proteins that will return to the central nervous system and structure the new synapses and neural networks - the molecular basis of brain plasticity. This process, as we will see in more detail below, is the psychoneuroendocrinological and immunogenetic basis of memory, emotions, behavior, creativity and mind-body interaction.

The process of generating neuronal plasticity begins in the cerebral cortex, which interfaces with the environment. Stimulated by everyday novelties, it sends this information to the hippocampus (Figure 1), which is the brain area responsible for the temporary, short-term storage of memory, learning and behavior. This interaction occurs mainly during sleep, dreaming and also during rest and relaxation, when the conscious mind is not very active. During these periods, the hippocampus establishes a dialogue, an unconscious interaction with the cerebral cortex, through a process of repetition, updating and consolidating in the cortex the memories of new life experiences in an adaptive way. If, after a learning process, we surgically remove the hippocampus and prevent an animal from falling asleep, this temporary memory disappears. In humans, removing the hippocampus bilaterally causes severe amnesia for recent events.

Figure 1 - The "updating dialog" between the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a temporary storage site for memories, learning and behavior

Source: modified from Rossi & Rossi (2008b).

Recently, the most famous patient in the history of neurosurgery, Henry Gustav Molaison, who became known as patient H.M., died at the age of 82. After a serious bicycle accident at the age of nine, he developed an intractable form of temporal lobe epilepsy as a result of localized lesions in the temporal lobes, notably the hippocampi. He underwent neurosurgical treatment, with extirpation of a large part of the hippocampi and adjacent areas of the temporal lobes, including the cerebral tonsils (see Figure 2), and developed a severe form of amnesia, with complete loss of recent memory. H.M. couldn't remember anything about his life.

Every situation was new to him. If he met someone and they came back to visit him, it was always like the first time. Every food he ate was always the first time; every place he visited, no matter how many times he had been there, was always the first time. We see this clinical picture in patients who suffer traumatic injuries or strokes in these regions of the brain. I've had the experience of seeing a patient with this type of hippocampal lesion, leaving for a few minutes to take a phone call and when I came back, I had to start all over again, introducing myself, because he no longer remembered me. Anyone who has seen the movie As if for the first time, starring actress Drew Barrymore and actor Adam Sandler, has seen what life can be like for a person with this type of brain injury.

Figure 2 - Brain of H.M. surgically removed hippocampi in black. Source: THE NEW YORK TIMES 

In a classic work from 2001, Lisman & Morris describe this continuous interaction between the cortex and the hippocampus:

[...] recent sensory information is directed through the cortex to the hippocampus. Surprisingly, only the hippocampus actually learns at this time. Later, during sleep, the hippocampus repeats the stored information, transmitting it to the cortex. The cortex is considered a slow learner, capable of storing lasting memories only as a result of the repetition of information from the hippocampus. The hippocampus is only a temporary store of memories. Once memory traces are stabilized in the cortex, memories can be accessed even when the hippocampus is removed. There is now direct evidence that some form of repetition takes place in the hippocampus... These results support the idea that the hippocampus is the fast online learner that 'teaches' the cortex, the slower offline learner.

The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, the region of the brain with the circuits responsible for most of our emotional responses. Through these emotional circuits, new behaviors and emotional sensations stimulate the hypothalamus, another area of the limbic system, the seat of neurovegetative life, which, through so-called hypothalamic release factors, acts on the pituitary gland, the master of all glands. Through the so-called hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands release hormones related to our emotional life and especially to stress, such as ACTH and cortisol.

The limbic system, acting through the hypothalamus, controls the neurovegetative system (sympathetic and parasympathetic), and through the release of pituitary hormones controls all the other glands and cells in the body. These hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membranes of somatic cells and neurons, causing the release of second messengers of a protein nature inside the cytoplasm of the cells. These second messengers, in turn, migrate to the cell nucleus, where they signal the dna regulatory and effector genes to start protein synthesis.

This synthesis of proteins is carried out through the transmission of genetic information from the DNA, carried by the messenger RNA to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cells, where the genetic code of four letters (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine) is read and transduced into the code of 20 amino acids that will make up the molecular polypeptide chain of proteins. The creation of new synapses (synaptogenesis) depends on this continuous synthesis of proteins for the formation of new neural networks and new memories, thus structuring brain plasticity. Without the perfect processing of this mind-brain-dna dialog, the manifestation of intelligent life and consciousness would be impossible.

We should also remember that the immune system also interacts simultaneously and actively with this mind-brain-DNA circuit, influencing the release of immunotransmitters (cytokines) and activating the cells (t and b lymphocytes, macrophages, etc.) that produce antibodies and are responsible for tracking down and eliminating bacteria, viruses and abnormal cells such as cancer cells, in other words, for recognizing the immune self and non-self. Emotional and spiritual experiences and experiences such as joy, happiness, compassion, creativity, sadness, depression, anxiety and stress, especially when they become chronic, can alter the epigenetic informational modulation of this psychoneuroendocrine-immunogenetic system and decrease the production of neurotransmitters such as endorphins, serotonin, dopamine, noradrenallin, etc., also influencing immune competence.

Persistent depression of immunocompetence can lead to a decrease in the ability of antibodies to track down abnormal cells, such as cancer cells, and lead to the development, for example, of a neoplasm, cancer, in our bodies. It is in this context that we will analyze the process of neuroplasticity which depends on protein synthesis, creating a dynamic cascade of molecular interactions between the mind, the brain, DNA, the immune system and the body, generating new neural networks and new memories and modulating the production of antibodies.


In 2006, Eric Kandel, winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2000 for his magnificent work on the foundations of memory and author of the surprising scientific autobiography In Search of Memory, described his scientific career in close relation to his life in a human and fascinating way. In the chapter "A dialog between synapses and genes", Kandel detailed the molecular processing of memory:

Gene expression converts short-term memory into long-term memory in the synapse, and the synapse, stimulated by learning, sends a signal to the nucleus to "turn on" certain regulatory genes. In short-term memory, synapses use cyclic amp and protein kinase A to trigger the release of more neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that in long-term memory, this kinase moves from the synapse to the nucleus, where it activates proteins that regulate gene expression. We had to identify the signal sent from the synapse to the nucleus, find the regulatory genes activated by the signal, and then identify the effector genes turned on by the regulator... We discovered that, while a single pulse of serotonin increases the cyclic amp and kinase a in the synapse, repeated pulses of serotonin produce even higher concentrations of the cyclic amp, causing kinase A to move into the nucleus, where it activates the genes.

Kinase A recruits another kinase, called map kinase, also associated with synaptic growth, which also migrates to the nucleus. So we've confirmed that one of the functions of repetitive sensitizing training - why practice makes perfect - is to trigger the appropriate signals in the form of kinases that move into the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, what do these kinases do? We knew from recently published studies on non-neuronal cells that kinase A can activate a regulatory protein called creb (cyclic amp response element-binding protein). This suggested to us that creb might be a key component of the switch that converts short-term facilitation in synaptic connections into long-term facilitation and the growth of new connections. In 1990, we discovered that creb is indeed essential for the long-term strengthening of sensitization-related synaptic connections. By blocking the action of creb in the nucleus of a neuron, we blocked the strengthening of long-term synaptic connections, but not short-term ones! This was impressive: by blocking this single regulatory protein, the entire process of synaptic transformation of long-term memory was blocked!

So, even though we have long said that the brain's genes are the rulers of behavior, the absolute masters of our destiny, our work has shown that, in both the brain and the bacteria, genes are also servants of the environment. They are guided by events in the outside world.

Kandel was discovering the molecular mechanisms of the new science of Epigenetics. In 2001 and 2006, Kandel demonstrated that gene expression and brain plasticity can be facilitated by psychotherapy:

Psychotherapy produces long-term changes in behavior through learning, triggering changes in gene expression that change synaptic connections with structural changes that alter the anatomical pattern of interconnections between brain cells. With the increased resolution of brain images, we will have quantitative assessments of the results of psychotherapy. The regulation of genetic expression by social factors means that all bodily functions, including all brain functions, are susceptible to social influences. These influences will be biologically incorporated into the modified expressions of specific genes in nerve cells in specific regions of the brain. These socially influenced modifications are transmitted culturally.

Today, high-field functional resonance images, such as the one reproduced below from the British magazine NewScientist, demonstrate in real time, as Kandel predicted in 2001, the dynamics between the cortex and hippocampus that occur during activities such as psychotherapy.

Figure 3 - From its central location, the hippocampus (yellow) connects distant regions of the cortex (red) involved in a particular memory. In this image, the brain has been rendered semi-transparent, and a functional resonance image of brain activity has been superimposed on an MRI image of its structure. Source: NewScientist


In 2008, Ernest Rossi, a well-known Ericksonian therapist, used this finding by Kandel and described a brilliant psychoneuroscientific model, through which psychotherapy and therapeutic hypnosis would be able to stimulate brain plasticity through a creative dialog with our genes. He said:

Psychotherapy and therapeutic hypnosis can be described by a neuroscientific model that demonstrates that these techniques are capable of stimulating brain plasticity and generating a creative dialog with our genes.


His model fascinates us because of the possibility of its applicability in all fields of knowledge, through what he called a new bioinformatics, the science that describes the processes of information transduction during mind-body-gene interaction.

The process of creativity, capable of stimulating synaptogenesis, generating new neural networks and new memories, is understood as a four-stage process:

  • stage one: the moment of having an idea and starting to work on the problem; stage two: the difficult experience of struggling to solve the problem; stage three: the creative moment. A "flash of insight"; stage four: the happy solution to the problem.

These four stages have been identified in the humanities, the sciences and psychology, showing that the same psychoneuroendocrine and immunogenetic processes are at play in all human activities.

In their book The New Neuroscience of Psychotherapy, freely accessible online, Rossi & Rossi (2008b) relate this four-phase creative process to the four-level psychobiological process of mind-body-gene interaction during gene expression and the process of brain plasticity. Below, we expand and specify in detail this four-level molecular processing, outlined at the beginning of this paper.

The information from the outside world encoded in the neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus is transformed in the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary system into messenger molecules (hormones), which carry the information through the circulation to the receptors in the cell membranes.

  1. Receptors on cell membranes transmit the signal, via protein second messengers such as kinase a, to dna in the cell nucleus, where regulatory genes communicate to effector genes to transcribe their code into messenger RNA.

  2. The mRNAs carry the genetic message from the cell nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, the intracellular organelle where protein synthesis takes place. The four-letter genetic code (nitrogenous bases) of DNA (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine) is then transcribed into a 20-letter amino acid code (the twenty essential amino acids). This transduction of information takes place by juxtaposing, one by one, the amino acids selected from the information carried by the sequence of each three nitrogenous bases (triad) brought by the mRNA, copied from the DNA language of the nucleus. These triads are letters of the genetic alphabet, the language of life, formed by the sequence of three of the four nitrogenous bases - a adenine, thymine, g guanine and cytosine. Each triad corresponds to one of the 20 essential amino acids found in nature, which are available in the cell's cytoplasm. These amino acids in the cell's cytoplasm are transported to the ribosome during protein synthesis by another type of RNA, the rna transporter (rnat). A sequence of approximately 30 amino acids joined together in a sequential line already constitutes a protein, which can contain up to 400 amino acids.

The proteins synthesized in this way are the body's ultimate healing structures and will act in our organism as specified in the sections below:

a) Structural proteins

They are the basic components of the structure of organisms. Any form of organic-cellular healing or regeneration needs proteins to take place, as cell membranes are made up of proteins and lipids.

b) Functional proteins

Represented by enzymes and antibodies.

Enzymes are functional proteins that facilitate (catalyze) energy dynamics, increasing the speed of cellular chemical reactions, without increasing temperature, through stereochemical recognition, which is a form of molecular cognition.

Antibodies are functional proteins called immunoglobulins, which have the function of recognizing and destroying bacterial cells, invading viruses and mutant cells, such as cancer cells.

c) Receptor proteins

They function as receptors and as information transducing channels in cell membranes.

d) Messenger proteins

They are information-carrying molecules like hormones.

Messenger molecules function as a kind of "molecular memory", being able to evoke state-dependent memory, learning and behavior in the brain's neural networks.

Neural plasticity and alternative X academic therapies

We stimulate brain plasticity through the new things we come into contact with. Therefore, any form of therapy, whether allopathic, homeopathic, complementary, alternative, noetic or integrative - and this is of fundamental importance for understanding the healing mechanisms of both academic and alternative treatments - will cause changes in the DNA and neural networks, triggering the creation of new memories and the process of neuroplasticity. This data, I repeat, is of fundamental importance for understanding the mechanisms of action of alternative and academic therapies, and interpreting the healing processes at play. In this psychoneuroendocrine-immunogenetic context, all forms of therapy, whether academic or alternative, have their value, because they stimulate genes to express a DNA code to synthesize proteins, which are the ultimate healing structures of the organism, "molecular machines" that promote mind-body healing.

Ultradian cycles

This complete cycle of mind-body-gene communication and healing, as well as most of the activities of our daily lives, usually takes around 90 to 120 minutes to complete and is related to the release into the circulation of various hormones that activate and inhibit cellular activity. These hormones, such as cortisol, adrenaline, testosterone, growth hormone, dhea (dehydroepiandrosterone) and countless other neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, have release cycles in the circulation of more or less 120 minutes, known as "ultradian cycles", in contrast to the 24-hour "circadian cycle". In Chronobiology, this cycle is known as the "basic rest-activity cycle" or brac.

Kandel (2006) demonstrated that the basic ultradian cycle of activity and rest (brac), when stimulated by new and stimulating signals from the environment, "switches on" activity-dependent genes, triggering the synthesis of new proteins and facilitating synaptogenesis and brain plasticity. This process of mind-brain, brain-body and cell-gene interaction takes around 90 to 120 minutes to take place, with the last stage, cell-gene, taking only 20 minutes. Rossi proposes this window of time as the ideal timing for psychotherapy. This "timing" would allow the patient to create new neural networks, stimulating neuroplasticity from the insights that emerge during psychotherapy or body stimulation, if they are carrying out mind-body therapy.

Rossi goes deeper into this whole process, citing authors who have shown that this process can be represented by a proteomic curve, which shows the energy for protein folding in neurons, and by a genomic curve, representing genetic expression for genes with immediate expression, such as c-fos and ten other genes.



The Brazilian neuroscientist Sidarta Ribeiro and his collaborators, in 2002 and 2004, demonstrated that when we experience significant novelties, environmental enrichment, or when we exercise during the waking state, the zif-268 gene is expressed in the rem sleep period, the sleep phase related to dreams. According to him:

(...) sustained neuronal reverberation during slow-wave sleep is immediately followed by expression of plasticity-related genes during rem sleep, which explains the benefit of sleep in consolidating new memories.


This zif-268 gene is a gene with immediate expression, related to behavioral states and associated with the generation of proteins and neuronal growth factors that facilitate brain plasticity.

In 2008, Ribeiro revealed the existence of "plasticity cycles", related to three distinct spatio-temporal waves of zif-268 expression, which begin in the hippocampus 30 minutes after stimulation, while still awake, with propagation to distal extra-hippocampal areas during the two subsequent episodes of rem sleep. Each up-regulation of zif-268 was interrupted by the next episode of sws (slow-wave sleep, not related to dreaming), indicating the existence of recurring cycles of plasticity as the two sleep states alternated.

The therapeutic implications of this process are immense, as dreams function as creative replays, and neuronal reverberation during slow-wave sleep (without dreams), followed by the expression of genes related to brain plasticity during dreaming, will generate creative transformations in the mind and behavior.

By using the time window of this cycle of genetic expression and brain plasticity to consolidate the reconstruction of fear, stress, traumatic memories and emotional symptoms, during the processes of psychotherapy, therapeutic hypnosis and mind-body therapies, triggering the creative dialogue with our genes, we greatly increase the possibility of success in our therapeutic interventions.

Our own clinical experience has shown us that if during therapy we generate amplified states of consciousness, such as meditation, prayer, creative visualization and relaxation, the process becomes much more effective. If we respect this wisdom of nature, this 90-120 minute window of time in the mind-brain-gene interaction process, in a way we catalyze the psychotherapy process. It is very important that we advise the patient on the need for restful sleep so that, especially during REM sleep, through dreams and plasticity cycles, they can consolidate what has been perceived and understood as relevant during the therapeutic process.

In short, when we awaken from sleep, dream, or come out of a process of contemplation, meditation or prayer, or when we carry out some form of therapy, be it academic or alternative, or even when, in our daily lives, we come into contact with significant novelties, we are facilitating the creative dialog between the cortex, the hippocampus, the limbic system, the immune system and the DNA, a process that is fundamental to life and the manifestation of consciousness.

As these natural manifestations of the mind, through the modulation of genetic expression and brain plasticity, are susceptible to environmental and social influences, this allows us to make a choice between what Rossi calls the "ultradian healing response" and the "ultradian stress response", which occur naturally during the day, approximately every two hours:Rossi propõe que :

the chronic stress induced by ignoring and skipping this natural rest phase of the Basic Rest-Activity Cycle is a primary source of psychosomatic disorders that can be resolved through mind-body therapy via therapeutic hypnosis (Lloyd & Rossi, 1992, 2008; Rossi & Nimmons, 1991).

We may or may not enjoy the natural resting and healing phase of the cycle. If we opt for this healing response, obeying the systemic wisdom of mind-body interaction, we can experience, according to Rossi, the stages outlined below.


BRAC recognition signs

Acceptance of nature's call to relax and the need to rest and recover strength and well-being, triggering an experience of comfort and gratitude.

Deep Breath

Deeper breathing comes naturally after a few moments of rest. It's a sign that you're entering a deeper state of relaxation and healing. Explore the deep feeling of comfort that comes spontaneously. Remind yourself of the possibilities of mind-gene communication and healing with a "compassionate and dispassionate" attitude.

Mind-body healing

Spontaneous fantasy, memory, active imagination and numinous states are orchestrated for healing and the reframing of life. Some people take a "nap".

Rejuvenation and awakening

Natural awakening with feelings of serenity, clarity and healing and a sense of improved performance and well-being.

If, on the other hand, as is often the case, we opt for the stress response, then we will have the sequence of events listed in the following items.


Rejection of nature's call

Rejection of nature's call for rest and recovery of strength and well-being, leading to an experience of stress and fatigue.

Hormone release

Continuous effort in the face of fatigue leads to the release of stress hormones, short-circuiting the ultradian rest cycle. Performance continues at the expense of hidden wear and tear, generating more stress and the need for artificial stimulants such as caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, etc.

Organic malfunction

Many errors in performance, memory and learning. Emotional problems such as depression and irritability become apparent. You can become abusive and out of control with yourself and others.

The rebellious body

Classic psychosomatic symptoms overwhelm you and you finally have to stop and rest. You are left with a persistent feeling of failure, depression and illness.

Understanding stress

Selye, the creator of the term "stress", defined it as "a state of tension of the organism when forced to use its defenses to face any challenging situation".

When we are stressed, we mobilize energy by increasing the release of glucose, oxygen, cortisol and adrenaline, increasing cardiovascular tone and respiratory rate, improving cognition and hippocampus-dependent memory, increasing the release of dopamine in the pleasure pathways and suppressing reproduction, immunity, growth and digestion.

If the stressful situation becomes chronic, the long-term effects of stress on the body will cause a reverse response, with a decrease in glucose release, worsening of hippocampal function and memory with neuronal atrophy, decreased synaptic plasticity, inhibition of neurogenesis, injury and death of neurons, decreased dopamine release and increased function of the amygdala (related to fear and anxiety), causing electrophysiological and structural changes, as well as worsening of the function of the frontal cortex and its executive function, also triggering electrophysiological and structural changes.

Failure to resolve the chronic stress situation will trigger the appearance of the so-called Adaptation Diseases, which are stress-related organic disorders such as stress-induced hypertension, heart disease, strokes, diabetes, myopathies, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, ulcers, colitis, amenorrhea, impotence and decreased libido, psychogenic dwarfism, increased risk of disease, death of neurons, particularly in the hippocampus, leading to progressive memory loss and even the development of dementia.

When we alter the natural flow of information by living a stressful life, we modify the ultradian hormonal releases and interrupt the flow of intelligence that sustains life. According to Ayurvedic Medicine, traditionally from India, illness is the interruption of the natural flow of intelligence, which has parallels with the quantum-holographic holoinformational flow of our mind's interaction with the universe, which we demonstrated in our previous lecture, and which is responsible for the spiritual level of Reality.


We are continually being created and restructured (rewired)all our lives!

Today, we know that maintaining brain activity continuously activated by renewing stimuli throughout life exponentially increases the density of neuronal connections, allowing us to overcome the natural aging process and brain atrophy, slowing down or even preventing the onset of dementia. It also allows us to develop a better neuroendocrine and immune capacity, which leads us to better withstand and overcome most of the diseases of ageing!

Eric Kandel, with all his vitality, joie de vivre and longevity, which we see all the time watching the In search of memory DVD, seems to us to be exactly the kind of person who has managed to make his life a stimulus to intelligence and mind-body integrity!



Mirror neurons are recently discovered cells capable of mediating empathy in psychotherapy, transference in psychoanalysis and rapport in therapeutic hypnosis and mind-body therapies. They are of fundamental importance in mediating learning and social behavior in the cultural contexts in which we live, as they "build bridges between the myths and psycho-spiritual religious metaphors of all cultures, and consciousness".

Rossi reminds us that psychosocial interactions between people, as well as the work of storytellers, singers, dancers, orators, actors and politicians of all kinds, who are able to "lead" an audience, are actually promoting genetic expression, the creation of new neural networks and stimulating brain plasticity through the action of mirror neurons.

We seek to build bridges between our numinous experiences of art, beauty, truth and self-creation at all levels, from the mind to the gene, underpinning a new bioinformatic approach to medicine, psychotherapy and rehabilitation. 


Selected bibliography

Gazzaniga, Michael S.; Ivry, Richard B. & Mangun, George R. Cognitive neuroscience: the biology of the mind. 2. ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 2002.

Henkin, Robert I. & Levy, Lucien M. Functional mri of congenital hyposmia: brain activation to odors and imagination of odors and tastes. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, v. 26, n. 1, p. 39-61, January/February, 2002.

Kandel, Eric R. A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. The American Journal of Psychiatry, v. 155, n. 4, p. 457-469, April, 1998.

______. The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses. Science, v. 294, n. 5.544, p. 1.030-1.038, 2001.

______. In search of memory. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. & Thompson, William L. Shared mechanisms in visual imagery and visual perception: insights from cognitive science. In: Gazzaniga, Michael S. (Ed.). The cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge, ma: mit Press, 2000.

Levy, Lucien M.; Henkin, Robert I.; Lin, Chin S.; Hutter, Alf & Schellinger, Dieter. Odor memory induces brain activation measured by functional mri. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, v. 23, n. 4, p. 487-498, July/August, 1999.

Lisman, John & Morris, Richard G. Memory. Why is the cortex a slow learner? Nature, v. 411, n. 6.835, p. 248-249, May, 2001.

Lloyd, David & Rossi, Ernest L. (Eds.). Ultradian rhythms from molecules to mind: a new vision of life. New York: Springer, 2008.

Oakley, David A.; Deeley, Quinton & Halligan, Peter W. Hypnotic depth and response to suggestion under standardized conditions and during fmri scanning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, v. 55, n. 1, p. 32-58, January, 2007.

Rainville, Pierre. Brain mechanisms of pain affect and pain modulation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, v. 12, n. 2, p. 195-204, April, 2002.

Ribeiro, Sidarta; Gervasoni, Damien; Soares, Ernesto S.; Zhou, Yi; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Pantoja, Janaína; Lavine, Michael & Nicolelis, Miguel Angelo L. Long-lasting novelty-induced neuronal reverberation during slow-wave sleep in multiple forebrain areas. Public Library of SciencePLoS, Biology, v. 2, n. 1, p. 126-137, January, 2004.

Ribeiro, Sidarta; Simões, Cristiano S. & Nicolelis, Miguel Angelo L. Genes, sleep and dreams. In: Lloyd, David & Rossi, Ernest L. (Eds.). Ultradian rhythms from molecules to mind: a new vision of life. New York: Springer, 2008.

Ribeiro, Sidarta; Xinwu, Shi; Engelhard, Matthew; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Hao; Gervasoni, Damien; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Wada, Kazuhiro; Lemos, Nelson A. M. & Nicolelis, Miguel Aangelo L. Novel experience induces persistent sleep-dependent plasticity in the cortex but not in the hippocampus. Frontiers in Neuroscience, v. 1, n. 1, p. 43-55, November, 2007.

Rossi, Ernest L. Dreams, consciousness & spirit: the quantum experience of self-reflection and co-creation. 3. ed. New York: Zeig, Tucker & Theisen, 2000.

______. The breakout heuristic: the new neuroscience of mirror neurons, consciousness and creativity in human relationships: selected papers of Ernest Lawrence Rossi. Phoenix: The Milton H. Erickson Foundation Press, 2007.

Rossi, Ernest L.; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna & Rossi, Kathryn L. (Eds.). The complete works of Milton H. Erickson. Vol. 1: The nature of hypnosis. Phoenix: The Milton H. Erickson Foundation Press, 2008.

Rossi, Ernest L. & Nimmons, David. The twenty-minute break: the ultradian healing response. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tarcher; New York: Zeig, Tucker & Theisen, 1991.

Rossi, Ernest L. & Rossi, Kathryn L. Open questions on mind, genes, consciousness, and behavior: the circadian and ultradian rhythms of art, beauty, and truth in creativity. In: Lloyd, David & Rossi, Ernest L. (Eds.). Ultradian rhythms from molecules to mind: a new vision of life. New York: Springer, 2008a.

______. The neuroscience of psychotherapy, therapeutic hypnosis and rehabilitation: a creative dialogue with our genes. Los Osos: Ernest Lawrence Rossi & Kathryn Lane Rossi, 2008b.  

Rossi, Ernest L.; Rossi, Kathryn L.; Yount, Garret; Cozzolino, Mauro & Iannotti, Salvador. The bioinformatics of integrative medical insights: proposals for an International PsychoSocial and Cultural Bioinformatics Project. Integrated Medicine Insights, v. 1, p. 17-26, September, 2006. Disponível em: <>.


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